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Close-mid back rounded vowel

Close-mid back rounded vowel
o
IPA Number307
Encoding
Entity (decimal)o
Unicode (hex)U+006F
X-SAMPAo
Braille⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)
Audio sample
source · help
IPA: Vowels
FrontCentralBack
Close
i
•
y
ɨ
•
ʉ
ɯ
•
u
Near-close
ɪ
•
ʏ
•
ʊ
Close-mid
e
•
ø
ɘ
•
ɵ
ɤ
•
o
Mid
•
ø̞
ə
ɤ̞
•
Open-mid
ɛ
•
œ
ɜ
•
ɞ
ʌ
•
ɔ
Near-open
æ
•
ɐ
Open
a
•
ɶ
ä
•
ɑ
•
ɒ

Vowels beside dots are: unrounded  rounded

The close-mid back rounded vowel, or high-mid back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨o⟩.

For the close-mid back rounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʊ⟩ or ⟨u⟩, see near-close back rounded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨o⟩, the vowel is listed here.

Close-mid back protruded vowel

The close-mid back protruded vowel is the most common variant of the close-mid back rounded vowel. It is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ⟨o⟩, and that is the convention used in this article. As there is no dedicated diacritic for protrusion in the IPA, the symbol for the close-mid back rounded vowel with an old diacritic for labialization, ⟨  ̫⟩, can be used as an ad hoc symbol ⟨⟩ for the close-mid back protruded vowel. Another possible transcription is ⟨⟩ or ⟨ɤʷ⟩ (a close-mid back vowel modified by endolabialization), but this could be misread as a diphthong.

For the close-mid near-back protruded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʊ⟩, see near-close back protruded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨o⟩, the vowel is listed here.

Features

Occurrence

Because back rounded vowels are assumed to have protrusion, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have compression.

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AfrikaansStandardbok[bok]'goat'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩. The height varies between close-mid [o] and mid [ɔ̝]. See Afrikaans phonology
BavarianAmstetten dialectContrasts close [u], near-close [o̝], close-mid [o] and open-mid [ɔ] back rounded vowels in addition to the open central unrounded [ä]. Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩.
Bulgarianуста/usta[os̪ˈt̪a]'mouth'Unstressed allophone of /u/ and /ɔ/. See Bulgarian phonology
Catalansóc[sok]'I am'See Catalan phonology
ChineseShanghainese/kò[ko˩]'melon'Height varies between close and close-mid; contrasts with a close to close-mid back compressed vowel.
CzechBohemianoko[ˈoko]'eye'Backness varies between back and near-back; may be realized as mid [o̞] instead. See Czech phonology
DanishStandardkone[ˈkʰoːnə]'wife'Also described as near-close [o̝ː]. See Danish phonology
DutchStandard BelgiankoolAbout this sound[koːɫ] (help·info)'cabbage'In the Netherlands often diphthongized to [oʊ]. See Dutch phonology
EnglishAustralianyawn[joːn]'yawn'See Australian English phonology
EstuaryMay be [oʊ] or [ɔo] instead.
Cockney
New ZealandSee New Zealand English phonology
Received PronunciationTypically transcribed with ⟨ɔː⟩. See English phonology
South AfricanGeneral and Broad varieties. Cultivated SAE has a more open vowel. See South African English phonology
General Indiango[ɡoː]'go'
General PakistaniVaries between [oː ~ əʊ ~ ʊ].
Singaporean
Estoniantool[toːlʲ]'chair'See Estonian phonology
Faroesetola[ˈtʰoːla]'to endure'May be a diphthong [oɔː ~ oəː] instead. See Faroese phonology
FrenchréseauAbout this sound[ʁezo] (help·info)'network'See French phonology
GermanStandardoderAbout this sound[ˈoːdɐ] (help·info)'or'See Standard German phonology
Upper Saxonsondern[ˈsɞ̝nd̥oˤn]'except'Pharyngealized; corresponds to [ɐ] in Northern Standard German. The example word is from the Chemnitz dialect.
GreekSfakianμεταφράζω / metafrázō[metafrázo]'translate'Corresponds to mid [o̞] in Modern Standard Greek. See Modern Greek phonology
Hungariankór[koːr]'disease'See Hungarian phonology
Italianombra[ˈombrä]'shade'See Italian phonology
Kaingangpipo[pɪˈpo]'toad'
Korean노래 / norae[noɾε]'song'See Korean phonology
KurdishKurmanji (Northern)rôj[roːʒ]'day'See Kurdish phonology
Sorani (Central)رۆژ/rôj
Palewani (Southern)
LatinClassicalsol[soːl]'sun'
LimburgishMost dialectshoof[ɦoːf]'garden'The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Lower Sorbianwocy[ˈβ̞ot̪͡s̪ɪ]'(two) eyes'Diphthongized to [u̯ɔ] in slow speech.
LuxembourgishSonn[zon]'sun'Sometimes realized as open-mid [ɔ]. See Luxembourgish phonology
Minangkabausado[sädoː]'all'
NorwegianMost dialectslov[loːʋ]'law'The quality varies among dialects; in Urban East Norwegian, it has been variously described as close-mid back [oː] and mid [o̞ː], in Stavangersk it is a close-mid near-back [o̟ː], whereas in Telemark it is a back open-mid vowel [ɔː]. In some dialects it is replaced by the diphthong [ɑʊ]. See Norwegian phonology
Persianلاک‌پشت/lakpošt[lɒkˈpoʃt]'turtle'
Portugueseoutro[owtɾu]'other'"outro" can be spoken without the "u" /w/.See Portuguese phonology
Saterland Frisiandoalje[ˈdo̟ːljə]'to calm'Near-back; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔː⟩. Phonetically, it is nearly identical to /ʊ/ ([ʊ̞]). The vowel typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩ is actually near-close [o̝ː].
ShiwiarAllophone of /a/.
SlovakSome speakerstelefón[ˈtɛ̝lɛ̝foːn]'telephone'Realization of /ɔː/ reported to occur in dialects spoken near the river Ipeľ, as well as - under Hungarian influence - in some other speakers. Corresponds to mid [ɔ̝ː] in standard Slovak. See Slovak phonology
Slovenemoj[mòːj]'my'See Slovene phonology
Sothopontsho[pʼon̩t͡sʰɔ]'proof'Contrasts close, near-close and close-mid back rounded vowels. See Sotho phonology
SwedishCentral StandardåkaAbout this sound[²oːcä] (help·info)'travel'Often diphthongized to [oə̯]. See Swedish phonology
Ukrainianмолодь/molod'[ˈmɔlodʲ]'youth'See Ukrainian phonology
Upper SorbianBóh[box]'god'Diphthongized to [u̯ɔ] in slow speech. See Upper Sorbian phonology
Welshnos[noːs]'night'See Welsh phonology
West Frisianbok[bok]'billy-goat'See West Frisian phonology
Yorubaegba mi o[egba mi o]'help'

Close-mid back compressed vowel

Close-mid back compressed vowel
ɤᵝ

There is no dedicated diacritic for compression in the IPA. However, compression of the lips can be shown with ⟨β̞⟩ as ⟨ɤ͡β̞⟩ (simultaneous [ɤ] and labial compression) or ⟨ɤᵝ⟩ ([ɤ] modified with labial compression). The spread-lip diacritic ⟨  ͍ ⟩ may also be used with a rounded vowel letter ⟨⟩ as an ad hoc symbol, but 'spread' technically means unrounded.

Only Shanghainese is known to contrast it with the more typical protruded (endolabial) close-mid back vowel, but the height of both vowels varies from close to close-mid.

Features

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
ChineseShanghainese/tè[tɤᵝ˩]'capital'Height varies between close and close-mid; contrasts with a close to close-mid back protruded vowel.

Notes

  1. While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Wissing (2016), section "The rounded mid-high back vowel /ɔ/".
  3. ^ Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  4. ^ Ternes & Vladimirova-Buhtz (1999), p. 56.
  5. Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 54.
  6. ^ Chen & Gussenhoven (2015), pp. 328–329.
  7. ^ Dankovičová (1999), p. 72.
  8. Grønnum (1998), p. 100.
  9. Ladefoged & Johnson (2010), p. 227.
  10. Uldall (1933), p. ?.
  11. Basbøll (2005), p. 47.
  12. Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  13. Harrington, Cox & Evans (1997).
  14. Wells (1982), p. 310.
  15. Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009).
  16. Roach (2004), p. 242.
  17. Lass (2002), p. 116.
  18. Wells (1982), p. 626.
  19. Mahboob & Ahmar (2004), p. 1009.
  20. Deterding (2000).
  21. Asu & Teras (2009), p. 368.
  22. Árnason (2011), pp. 68, 74–75.
  23. Árnason (2011), pp. 68, 75.
  24. Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  25. Collins & Mees (2013), p. 225.
  26. Hall (2003), pp. 90, 107.
  27. Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 34.
  28. ^ Khan & Weise (2013), p. 237.
  29. Trudgill (2009), pp. 83–84.
  30. Trudgill (2009), p. 81.
  31. Szende (1994), p. 94.
  32. Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 119.
  33. Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677, 682.
  34. Thackston (2006a), p. 1. sfnp error: no target: CITEREFThackston2006a (help)
  35. Khan & Lescot (1970), pp. 8-16. sfnp error: no target: CITEREFKhanLescot1970 (help)
  36. Wheelock's Latin (1956). sfnp error: no target: CITEREFWheelock's_Latin1956 (help)
  37. Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  38. Peters (2006), p. 119.
  39. Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  40. ^ Stone (2002), p. 600.
  41. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 70.
  42. ^ Vanvik (1979), pp. 13, 17.
  43. ^ Kristoffersen (2000), pp. 16–17.
  44. ^ Popperwell (2010), p. 26.
  45. ^ Vanvik (1979), p. 17.
  46. Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  47. ^ Peters (2017), p. ?.
  48. ^ Fast Mowitz (1975), p. 2.
  49. ^ Kráľ (1988), p. 92.
  50. ^ Doke & Mofokeng (1974), p. ?.
  51. Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  52. Rosenqvist (2007), p. 9.
  53. Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  54. Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 20.
  55. Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 32–33.
  56. Tiersma (1999), p. 10.
  57. Bamgboṣe (1969), p. 166. sfnp error: no target: CITEREFBamgboṣe1969 (help)
This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Close-mid back rounded vowel, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (view authors).


Date of last edit: 2021-01-29T09:27:20.000Z