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Mid front unrounded vowel

unrounded vowel sound
Mid front unrounded vowel
ɛ̝
IPA Number302 430
Encoding
Entity (decimal)e​̞
Unicode (hex)U+0065 U+031E
X-SAMPAe_o
Braille⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)⠠ (braille pattern dots-6)⠣ (braille pattern dots-126)
Audio sample
source · help
IPA: Vowels
FrontCentralBack
Close
i
•
y
ɨ
•
ʉ
ɯ
•
u
Near-close
ɪ
•
ʏ
•
ʊ
Close-mid
e
•
ø
ɘ
•
ɵ
ɤ
•
o
Mid
•
ø̞
ə
ɤ̞
•
Open-mid
ɛ
•
œ
ɜ
•
ɞ
ʌ
•
ɔ
Near-open
æ
•
ɐ
Open
a
•
ɶ
ä
•
ɑ
•
ɒ

Vowels beside dots are: unrounded  rounded

The mid front unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound that is used in some spoken languages. There is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the exact mid front unrounded vowel between close-mid [e] and open-mid [ɛ], but it is normally written ⟨e⟩. If precision is required, diacritics may be used, such as ⟨⟩ or ⟨ɛ̝⟩ (the former, indicating lowering, being more common). In Sinology and Koreanology ⟨ᴇ⟩, (small capital E, U+1D07, ) is sometimes used, for example in the Zhengzhang Shangfang reconstructions.

For many of the languages that have only one phonemic front unrounded vowel in the mid-vowel area (neither close nor open), the vowel is pronounced as a true mid vowel and is phonetically distinct from either a close-mid or open-mid vowel. Examples are Basque, Spanish, Romanian, Japanese, Turkish, Finnish, Greek, Hejazi Arabic, Serbo-Croatian and Korean (Seoul dialect). A number of dialects of English also have such a mid front vowel. However, there is no general predisposition. Igbo and Egyptian Arabic, for example, have a close-mid [e], and Bulgarian has an open-mid [ɛ], but none of these languages have another phonemic mid front vowel.

Kensiu, spoken in Malaysia and Thailand, is claimed to be unique in having true-mid vowels that are phonemically distinct from both close-mid and open-mid vowels, without differences in other parameters such as backness or roundedness.

Features

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AfrikaansStandardbed[bɛ̝t]'bed'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛ⟩. The height varies between mid [ɛ̝] and close-mid [e]. See Afrikaans phonology
ArabicHejaziبـيـت‎/beet[be̞ːt]'home'See Hejazi Arabic phonology
BretonPossible realization of unstressed /ɛ/; can be open-mid [ɛ] or close-mid [e] instead.
ChineseMandarin / About this sound[je̞˨˩˦]'also'See Standard Chinese phonology
CzechBohemianled[lɛ̝̈t]'ice'Near-front; may be open-mid [ɛ] instead. See Czech phonology
DutchSome speakerszet[zɛ̝t]'shove' (n.)Open-mid [ɛ] in Standard Dutch. See Dutch phonology
EnglishBroad New Zealandcat[kʰɛ̝t]'cat'Lower in other New Zealand varieties; corresponds to [æ] in other accents. See New Zealand English phonology
Cockneybird[bɛ̝̈ːd]'bird'Near-front; occasional realization of /ɜː/. It can be rounded [œ̝ː] or, more often, unrounded central [ɜ̝ː] instead. Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɜː⟩.
Cultivated New Zealandlet[le̞t]'let'Higher in other New Zealand varieties. See New Zealand English phonology
Received PronunciationMany speakers pronounce a more open vowel [ɛ] instead. See English phonology
Scottish[bë̞ʔ]
Yorkshireplay[ple̞ː]'play'
Estoniansule[ˈsule̞ˑ]'feather' (gen. sg.)Common word-final allophone of /e/. See Estonian phonology
Finnishmenen[ˈme̞ne̞n]'I go'See Finnish phonology
GermanStandardBett[b̥ɛ̝t]'bed'More often described as open-mid front [ɛ]. See Standard German phonology
Bernese dialectrède[ˈrɛ̝d̥ə]'to speak'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛ⟩. See Bernese German phonology
GreekModern Standardπες / pes[pe̞s̠]'say!'See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrewכן‎/ken[ke̞n]'yes'Hebrew vowels are not shown in the script, see Niqqud and Modern Hebrew phonology
Hungarianhét[he̞ːt̪]'seven'Also described as close-mid [eː]. See Hungarian phonology
Ibibio[sé̞]'look'
Icelandickenna[ˈcʰɛ̝nːä]'to teach'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛ⟩. The long allophone is often diphthongized to [eɛ]. See Icelandic phonology
ItalianStandardcrederci[ˈkreːd̪e̞rt͡ʃi]'to believe'Common realization of the unstressed /e/. See Italian phonology
Northern accentspenso[ˈpe̞ŋso]'I think'Common realization of /e/. See Italian phonology
Japanese笑み/emiAbout this sound[e̞mʲi] (help·info)'smile'See Japanese phonology
Jebero[ˈiʃë̞k]'bat'Near-front; possible realization of /ɘ/.
Korean내가 / naega[nɛ̝ɡɐː]'I'Pronunciation of ⟨ɛ⟩. See Korean phonology
LimburgishMaastrichtianbèd[bɛ̝t]'bed'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛ⟩.
Weert dialectzègke[ˈzɛ̝ɡə]'to say'
MacedonianStandardмед[ˈmɛd̪]'honey'
MalayStandard Malaysian Malayelok[e̞ˈlo̞ʔ]'good'See Malay phonology
NorwegianUrban Eastnett[nɛ̝tː]'net'See Norwegian phonology
Romanianfete[ˈfe̞t̪e̞]'girls'See Romanian phonology
Russianчеловек[t͡ɕɪlɐˈvʲe̞k]'human'Occurs only after soft consonants. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatianтек / tek[t̪ĕ̞k]'only'See Serbo-Croatian phonology
SlovakStandardbehať[ˈbɛ̝ɦäc̟]'to run'See Slovak phonology
Slovenevelikan[ʋe̞liˈká̠ːn]'giant'Unstressed vowel, as well as an allophone of /e/ before /j/ when a vowel does not follow within the same word. See Slovene phonology
Spanishbebé[be̞ˈβ̞e̞]'baby'See Spanish phonology
SwedishCentral Standardhäll[hɛ̝l̪]'flat rock'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛ⟩. Many dialects pronounce short /e/ and /ɛ/ the same. See Swedish phonology
Teraze[zè̞ː]'spoke'
Turkishev[e̞v]'house'See Turkish phonology
Upper Sorbiannjebjo[ˈɲ̟ɛ̝bʲɔ]'sky'Allophone of /ɛ/ between soft consonants and after a soft consonant, excluding /j/ in both cases. See Upper Sorbian phonology
YorubaTypically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛ̃⟩. It is nasalized, and may be open-mid [ɛ̃] instead.

Notes

  1. Bishop, N. (1996). A preliminary description of Kensiw (Maniq) phonology. Mon–Khmer Studies Journal, 25.
  2. ^ Wissing (2016), section "The unrounded mid-front vowel /ɛ/".
  3. Abdoh (2010), p. 84.
  4. ^ Ternes (1992), p. 433.
  5. Lee & Zee (2003), p. 110.
  6. ^ Dankovičová (1999), p. 72.
  7. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), p. 131.
  8. ^ Gordon & Maclagan (2004), p. 609.
  9. ^ Wells (1982), p. 305.
  10. Roach (2004), p. 242.
  11. Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 7.
  12. Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 179.
  13. Asu & Teras (2009), pp. 368–369.
  14. Asu & Teras (2009), p. 369.
  15. Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 60, 66.
  16. Suomi, Toivanen & Ylitalo (2008), p. 21.
  17. Kohler (1999), p. 87.
  18. Hall (2003), pp. 82, 107.
  19. Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 34.
  20. Marti (1985), p. 27.
  21. Arvaniti (2007), p. 28.
  22. Trudgill (2009), p. 81.
  23. Laufer (1999), p. 98.
  24. Szende (1994), p. 92.
  25. Kráľ (1988), p. 92.
  26. Urua (2004), p. 106.
  27. Brodersen (2011).
  28. Árnason (2011), pp. 57–60.
  29. ^ Bertinetto & Loporcaro (2005), pp. 137–138.
  30. ^ Bertinetto & Loporcaro (2005), p. 137.
  31. Okada (1999), p. 117.
  32. ^ Valenzuela & Gussenhoven (2013), p. 101.
  33. Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  34. Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 107.
  35. Strandskogen (1979), pp. 15-16.
  36. Vanvik (1979), p. 13.
  37. Sarlin (2014), p. 18.
  38. Jones & Ward (1969), p. 41.
  39. Kordić (2006), p. 4.
  40. Landau et al. (1999), p. 67.
  41. Pavlík (2004), pp. 93, 95.
  42. Hanulíková & Hamann (2010), p. 375.
  43. ^ Tatjana Srebot-Rejec. "On the vowel system in present-day Slovene" (PDF).
  44. Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999), p. 138.
  45. Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 256.
  46. Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  47. Tench (2007), p. 230.
  48. Zimmer & Orgun (1999), p. 155.
  49. Göksel & Kerslake (2005), p. 10.
  50. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 34.
  51. ^ Bamgboṣe (1966), p. 166.
This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Mid front unrounded vowel, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (view authors).


Date of last edit: 2021-01-28T20:14:08.000Z