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Voiced postalveolar affricate

Consonantal sound
Voiced postalveolar affricate
d̠ʒ
IPA Number104 135
Encoding
Entity (decimal)d​͡​ʒ
Unicode (hex)U+0064 U+0361 U+0292
X-SAMPAdZ or d_rZ
Image
Voiced palato-alveolar affricate (vector, no tiebar).svg
Audio sample
source · help

The voiced palato-alveolar sibilant affricate, voiced post-alveolar affricate or voiced domed postalveolar sibilant affricate, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨d͡ʒ⟩ (formerly the ligature ⟨ʤ⟩), or in some broad transcriptions ⟨ɟ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA representation is dZ. Alternatives commonly used in linguistic works, particularly in older or American literature, are ⟨ǰ⟩, ⟨ǧ⟩, ⟨ǯ⟩, and ⟨dž⟩. It is familiar to English speakers as the pronunciation of ⟨j⟩ in jump.

Features

Features of the voiced postalveolar affricate:

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Abkhazаџыр[ad͡ʒər]'steel'See Abkhaz phonology
AdygheджанэAbout this sound[d͡ʒaːna] (help·info)'dress'
Albanianxham[d͡ʒam]'glass'
Amharicእን[ɨnd͡ʒəra]'injera'
ArabicModern Standardجَرَس[d͡ʒaras]'bell'In other standards and dialects, corresponds to [ɡ] or [ʒ]. See Arabic phonology
Hejaziجَزْمَة[d͡ʒazma]'shoes'Pronounced [ʒ] by some speakers. See Hejazi Arabic phonology
ArmenianEasternջուր[d͡ʒuɾ]'water'
Westernճանճ[d͡ʒɑnd͡ʒ]'musca (fly)'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaicjura[d͡ʒuɾ:a]'big'Used predominantly in Urmia and some Jilu dialects. [g] is used in other varieties.
Azerbaijaniağac[ɑɣɑd͡ʒ]'tree'
Bengali[d͡ʒɔl]'water'Contrasts with the aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Bulgarianджудже[ˈd͡ʒʊd͡ʒɛ]'dwarf'See Bulgarian phonology
Chechenджерво / dzhyerwo[d͡ʒjerwo]'previously married woman'
ChineseQuzhou dialect[d͡ʒõ]'heavy'
Copticϫ[d͡ʒe]'that'
Czechčba[lɛːd͡ʒba]'treatment'See Czech phonology
Englishjump[ˈd͡ʒʌmp]'jump'See English phonology
Esperantomanĝaĵo[manˈd͡ʒaʒo̞]'food'See Esperanto phonology
Frenchadjonction[ad͡ʒɔ̃ksjɔ̃]'addition'Rare. See French phonology
Georgianიბე[d͡ʒibɛ]'pocket'
GermanStandardDschungel[ˈd͡ʒʊŋəl]'jungle'Laminal or apico-laminal and strongly labialized. Some speakers may merge it with /t͡ʃ/. See Standard German phonology
Goemai[d͡ʒaːn]'twins'
Hebrewג׳וק[d͡ʒuk]'cockroach'Only used in loanwords. See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustaniजाना / جانا[d͡ʒäːnäː]'to go'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Hungarianlándzsa[laːnd͡ʒɒ]'spear'Rare, mostly in loanwords. See Hungarian phonology
Indonesianjarak[ˈd͡ʒaraʔ]'distance'
Italiangemma[ˈd͡ʒɛmma]'gem'See Italian phonology
Kabylelǧiran[ld͡ʒiræn]'the neighbors'
Kashubian
KurdishNortherncîger[d͡ʒiːˈɡɛɾ]'lung'See Kurdish phonology
Centralجەرگ[d͡ʒɛɾg]'liver'
Southern[d͡ʒæɾg]
Kyrgyzжаман[d͡ʒaman]'bad'See Kyrgyz phonology
Latviandai[dad͡ʒi]'thistles'See Latvian phonology
LimburgishHasselt dialectdjèn[d͡ʒɛːn²]'Eugene'
Lithuanianiaugsmingas[d͡ʒɛʊɡʲsʲˈmʲɪnɡɐs]'gladsome'See Lithuanian phonology
Macedonianџемпер[ˈd͡ʒɛmpɛr]'sweater'See Macedonian phonology
Malayjahat[d͡ʒahat]'evil'
Manchuᠵᡠᠸᡝ[d͡ʒuwe]'two'
Marathi[d͡ʒəj]'victory'See Marathi phonology
OccitanLanguedocienjove[ˈd͡ʒuβe]'young'See Occitan phonology
Provençal[ˈd͡ʒuve]
Odiaମି/jami[d͡ʒɔmi]'land'Contrasts with aspirated form.
Ojibweᑭᐌᐦ / iicikiwee[iːd͡ʒikiwẽːʔ]'brother'See Ojibwe phonology
Pashtoجګ[d͡ʒeɡ]'high'
Persianکجا[kod͡ʒɒ]'where'See Persian phonology
PolishGmina Istebnadziwny[ˈd͡ʒivn̪ɘ]'strange'/ɖ͡ʐ/ and /d͡ʑ/ merge into [d͡ʒ] in these dialects. In standard Polish, /d͡ʒ/ is commonly used to transcribe what actually is a laminal voiced retroflex affricate.
Lubawa dialect
Malbork dialect
Ostróda dialect
Warmia dialect
PortugueseMost Brazilian dialectsgrande[ˈɡɾɐ̃d͡ʒi]'big'Allophone of /d/ before /i, ĩ/ (including when the vowel is elided) and other instances of [i] (e.g. epenthesis), marginal sound otherwise.
Most dialectsjambalaya[d͡ʒɐ̃bɐˈlajɐ]'jambalaya'In free variation with /ʒ/ in a few recent loanwords. See Portuguese phonology
Romanianger[ˈd͡ʒɛ̝r]'frost'See Romanian phonology
SardinianCampidanesegéneru[ˈd͡ʒɛneru]'son-in-law'
Scottish GaelicDia[d͡ʒia]'God'See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-CroatianSome speakersџем / em[d͡ʒê̞m]'jam'May be laminal retroflex instead, depending on the dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Bosnianђаво / đavo[d͡ʒâ̠ʋo̞ː]'devil'Most Croatian and some Bosnian speakers merge /d͡ʒ/ and /d͡ʑ/, either to [d͡ʒ] or laminal [ɖ͡ʐ].
Croatian
SilesianGmina IstebnaThese dialects merge /ɖ͡ʐ/ and /d͡ʑ/ into [d͡ʒ].
Jablunkov
Somalijoog[d͡ʒoːɡ]'stop'See Somali phonology
Tagalogdiyan[d͡ʒän]'there'Used to pronounce the multigraphs ⟨dy⟩ and ⟨diy⟩ in native words and ⟨j⟩ in loanwords outside Spanish. For more information, see Tagalog phonology.
Turkishacı[äˈd͡ʒɯ]'pain'See Turkish phonology
Turkmenjar[d͡ʒär]'ravine'
Tyapjem[d͡ʒem]'hippopotamus'
Ubykh[amd͡ʒan]'?'See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainianджерело[d͡ʒɛrɛˈlɔ]'source'See Ukrainian phonology
Uyghurجوزا[d͡ʒozɑ]'desk'See Uyghur phonology
West Frisiansiedzje[ˈʃɪd͡ʒə]'to sow'See West Frisian phonology
Yiddishדזשוכע[d͡ʒʊxə]'insect'See Yiddish phonology
ZapotecTilquiapandxan[d͡ʒaŋ]'god'

Voiced postalveolar non-sibilant affricate

Voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative
d̠ɹ̠˔
dɹ̝˗
Audio sample
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Features

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
EnglishAustraliandream[d̠͡ɹ̠˔ʷɪi̯m]'dream'Phonetic realization of the stressed, syllable-initial sequence /dr/. In General American and Received Pronunciation, the less common alternative is alveolar [d͡ɹ̝]. See Australian English phonology and English phonology
General American
Received Pronunciation
Port Talbot[d̠͡ɹ̠˔iːm]

Other topics

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Voiced postalveolar affricate, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (view authors).


Date of last edit: 2021-01-28T19:39:05.000Z