essayon.top

Urgent student assistance

~ Essay, thesis, dissertation, term paper writing service ~

A custom, well-done writing on a given topic!

place order

Buy essay, thesis, dissertation and any other type of writing online! Fill out the form to continue.

Voiced postalveolar fricative

A voiced postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. This refers to a class of sounds, not a single sound. There are several types with significant perceptual differences:

This article discusses the first two.

International Phonetic Association uses term voiced postalveolar fricative only for sound [ʒ].

Voiced palato-alveolar fricative

Voiced postalveolar fricative
ʒ
IPA Number135
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʒ
Unicode (hex)U+0292
X-SAMPAZ
Braille⠮ (braille pattern dots-2346)
Image
Voiced palato-alveolar fricative (vector).svg
Audio sample
source · help

The voiced palato-alveolar fricative or voiced domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

Transcription

The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is the lower case form of the letter Ezh ⟨Ʒ ʒ⟩ (/ɛʒ/), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is Z. An alternative symbol used in some older and American linguistic literature is ⟨ž⟩, a z with a caron. In some transcriptions of alphabets such as the Cyrillic, the sound is represented by the digraph zh.

palato-alveolar fricative [ʃ, ʒ]

Although present in English, the sound is not represented by a specific letter or digraph, but is formed by yod-coalescence of [z] and [j] in words such as measure. It also appears in some loanwords, mainly from French (thus written with ⟨g⟩ and ⟨j⟩).

The sound occurs in many languages and, as in English and French, may have simultaneous lip rounding ([ʒʷ]), although this is rarely indicated in transcription.

Features

Features of the voiced palato-alveolar fricative:

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AdygheжакӀэAbout this sound[ʒaːtʃʼa] (help·info)'beard'
Albanianzhurmë[ʒuɾm]'noise'
ArabicMaghrebiزوج[zuʒ]'husband'See Arabic phonology
ArmenianEasternժամAbout this sound[ʒɑm] (help·info)'hour'
Avarжакъа[ˈʒaqʼːa]'today'
Azerbaijanijalüz[ʒalyz]'blinds'
Berta[ŋɔ̀nʒɔ̀ʔ]'honey'
Bulgarianмъжът[mɐˈʒɤ̞t̪]'the man'See Bulgarian phonology
Chechenжий / ƶiy[ʒiː]'sheep'
ChineseQuzhou dialect[ʒɑ̃]'bed'
Corsicanghjesgia[ˈjeːʒa]'church'Also in Gallurese
Czechmuži[ˈmuʒɪ]'men'See Czech phonology
Dutchgarage[ɣäˈräːʒə]'garage'See Dutch phonology
EmilianBolognesechè[ˈkɛːð̠]'case'Apical; not labialized; may be [z̺ʲ] or [ʐ] instead.
EnglishvisionAbout this sound[ˈvɪʒən]'vision'See English phonology
Esperantomanĝaĵo[maɲˈd͡ʒaʒo̞]'food'See Esperanto phonology
FrenchJour[ʒuʁ]'day'See French phonology
GermanStandardGarage[ɡaˈʁaːʒʷə]'garage'Laminal or apico-laminal and strongly labialized. Some speakers may merge it with /ʃ/. See Standard German phonology
Georgianურნალი[ʒuɾnali]'magazine'
Goemaizhiem[ʒiem]'sickle'
GreekCypriotγαλάζ̌ο[ɣ̞ɐˈlɐʒːo̞]'sky blue'
Gwich’inzhòh[ʒôh]'wolf'
Hänzhùr[ʒûr]'wolf'
Hebrewז׳אנר[ʒaneʁ]'genre'Phoneme present in loanwords only. See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindiझ़दहा[əʒd̪əhaː]'dragon'See Hindi–Urdu phonology
Hungarianzsa[ˈr̪oːʒɒ]'rose'See Hungarian phonology
Ingushжий/žii[ʒiː]'sheep'
ItalianTuscanpigiare[piˈʒäːre]'press'See Italian phonology
Judaeo-Spanishmujer[muˈʒɛr]'woman'
Juǀ'hoanju[ʒu]'person'
Kabardianжыг[ʒəɣʲ]'tree'
Kabylejeddi[ʒəddi]'my grandfather'
Kashubianżdi rôz[kʷʒdi rɞz]'constantly'
Kazakhжеті/jeti[ʒeti]'seven'
Latvianžāvēt[ˈʒäːveːt̪]'to dry'See Latvian phonology
Ligurianxe['ly:ʒe]'light'
LimburgishMaastrichtianzjuweleer[ʒy̠β̞əˈleːʀ̝̊]'jeweller'Laminal post-alveolar with an unclear amount of palatalization.
Lithuanianžmona[ʒmoːˈn̪ɐ]'wife'See Lithuanian phonology
Livonianž[kuːʒ]'six'
LombardWesternresgiôra[reˈʒu(ː)ra]'matriarch'
Macedonianжaбa[ˈʒaba]'toad'See Macedonian phonology
Megrelianირი[ʒiɾi]'two'
Navajołizh[ɬiʒ]'urine'
Neapolitansbattere[ˈʒbαttərə]'to slam'
Ngaszhaam[ʒaːm]'chin'
NgweMmockngie dialect[ʒíá]'to split'
OccitanAuvergnatargent[aʀʒẽ]'money'Southern dialects
Gascon[arʒen]
Pashtoژوول[ʒowul]'chew'
Persianمژه[moʒe]'eyelash'See Persian phonology
PolishGmina Istebnazielony[ʒɛˈlɔn̪ɘ]'green'/ʐ/ and /ʑ/ merge into [ʒ] in these dialects. In standard Polish, /ʒ/ is commonly used to transcribe what actually is a laminal voiced retroflex sibilant.
Lubawa dialect
Malbork dialect
Ostróda dialect
Warmia dialect
Portugueseloja[ˈlɔʒɐ]'shop'Also described as alveolo-palatal [ʑ]. See Portuguese phonology
Romanianjar[ʒär]'embers'See Romanian phonology
Serbo-Croatianжут / žut[ʒûːt̪]'yellow'May be laminal retroflex instead, depending on the dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
SilesianGmina IstebnaThese dialects merge /ʐ/ and /ʑ/ into [ʒ].
Jablunkov
SiouxLakotawaŋži[wãˈʒi]'one'
Slovenianžito[ˈʒìːtɔ]'cereal'See Slovene phonology
SpanishRioplatense, Ecuadorian (lleísta dialect)yo (Rioplatense), ellos (Ecuadorian, Rioplatense)[ʒo̞][eʒos]'I', 'they'Some dialects. See Spanish phonology and yeísmo
Tadaksahak[ˈʒɐwɐb]'to answer'
Tagish[ʒé]'what'
Turkishjale[ʒäːˈlɛ]'dew'See Turkish phonology
Turkmenžiraf[ʒiraf]'giraffe'
TutchoneNorthernzhi[ʒi]'what'
Southernzhǜr[ʒɨ̂r]'berry'
Ukrainianжaбa[ˈʒɑbɐ]'frog'See Ukrainian phonology
Urduاژدہا[əʒd̪ahaː]'dragon'See Hindi–Urdu phonology
Vepsž[viːʒ]'five'
Welayta[aʒa]'bush'
West Frisianbagaazje[bɑˈɡaʒə]'luggage'See West Frisian phonology
Yiddishאָראַנזש[ɔʀanʒ]'orange'See Yiddish phonology
ZapotecTilquiapanllan[ʒaŋ]'anger'

The sound in Russian denoted by ⟨ж⟩ is commonly transcribed as a palato-alveolar fricative but is actually a laminal retroflex fricative.

Voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative

Voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative
ɹ̠˔
ɹ̝˗
IPA Number151 414 429
Encoding
X-SAMPAr\_-_r
Audio sample
source · help

The voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative is a consonantal sound. As the International Phonetic Alphabet does not have separate symbols for the post-alveolar consonants (the same symbol is used for all coronal places of articulation that aren't palatalized), this sound is usually transcribed ⟨ɹ̠˔⟩ (retracted constricted [ɹ]). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r\_-_r.

Features

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Dutchmeer[meːɹ̠˔]'lake'A rare post-vocalic allophone of /r/. Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
ThaiKrungthepยี[ɹ̠˔īː]'to crush, to mash'Contrast with Ayutthaya accent (Standard accent) which use [j] instead.
MandarinTainan[ɹ̠˔ôʊ]'meat'Contrast with Taipei Mandarin (Standard accent) which use [ɹ̠] instead.
Manxmooar[muːɹ̠˔]'lake'In free variation with other coda allophones of /r/.

Other topics

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Voiced postalveolar fricative, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (view authors).


Date of last edit: 2021-01-28T19:49:03.000Z