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Voiced velar plosive

Consonantal sound
"/g/" redirects here. For the 4chan /g/ board, see 4chan § History.
Because of technical restrictions the symbol for the voiced velar stop might be rendered as ' ꞬMSReferenceSansSerif.png' (resembles letter 'Y') instead of a single-storey lower-case g on your system.
Voiced velar plosive
ɡ
IPA Number110
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɡ
Unicode (hex)U+0261
X-SAMPAg
Braille⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245)
Image
Voiced velar stop (vector).svg
Audio sample
source · help

The voiced velar plosive or stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.

Some languages have the voiced pre-velar plosive, which is articulated slightly more front compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical velar plosive, though not as front as the prototypical palatal plosive.

Conversely, some languages have the voiced post-velar plosive, which is articulated slightly behind the place of articulation of the prototypical velar plosive, though not as back as the prototypical uvular plosive.

IPA symbol

The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɡ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is g. Strictly, the IPA symbol is the so-called single-storey G Opentail g.svg, but the double-storey G Looptail g.svg is considered an acceptable alternative. The Unicode character U+0067 g LATIN SMALL LETTER G renders as either a single-storey G or a double-storey G depending on font; the character U+0261 ɡ LATIN SMALL LETTER SCRIPT G is always a single-storey G, but it is generally available only in fonts with the IPA Extensions Unicode character block.

Features

Features of the voiced velar stop:

Occurrence

Of the six stops that would be expected from the most common pattern worldwide—that is, three places of articulation plus voicing ([p b, t d, k ɡ])—[p] and [ɡ] are the most frequently missing, being absent in about 10% of languages that otherwise have this pattern. Absent stop [p] is an areal feature (see also Voiceless bilabial stop). Missing [ɡ], on the other hand, is widely scattered around the world, for example /ɡ/ is not a native phoneme of Belarusian, Dutch, Czech, Finnish or Slovak and occurs only in borrowed words in those languages. A few languages, such as Modern Standard Arabic and part of the Levantine dialects (e.g. Lebanese and Syrian), are missing both, although most Modern Arabic dialects have /ɡ/ in their native phonemic systems as a reflex of ⟨ق⟩ or less commonly of ⟨ج⟩.

It seems that [ɡ] is somewhat more difficult to articulate than the other basic stops. Ian Maddieson speculates that this may be due to a physical difficulty in voicing velars: Voicing requires that air flow into the mouth cavity, and the relatively small space allowed by the position of velar consonants means that it will fill up with air quickly, making voicing difficult to maintain in [ɡ] for as long as it is in [d] or [b]. This could have two effects: [ɡ] and [k] might become confused, and the distinction is lost, or perhaps a [ɡ] never develops when a language first starts making voicing distinctions. With uvulars, where there is even less space between the glottis and tongue for airflow, the imbalance is more extreme: Voiced [ɢ] is much rarer than voiceless [q].

Many Indo-Aryan languages, such as Hindustani, have a two-way contrast between aspirated and plain [ɡ].

Examples

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Abkhazажыга/ažyga[aˈʐəɡa]'shovel'See Abkhaz phonology
AdygheShapsugгьэгуалъэ/g'ègwal"èAbout this sound[ɡʲaɡʷaːɬa] (help·info)'toy'Dialectal. Corresponds to [d͡ʒ] in other dialects.
Temirgoyчъыгы/ č"ygyAbout this sound[t͡ʂəɡə] (help·info)'tree'Dialectal. Corresponds to [ɣ] in other dialects.
Albaniangomar[ˈɡomaɾ]'donkey'
ArabicMoroccanأݣادير/'agaadiir[ʔaɡaːdiːr]'Agadir'
Tunisianڨفصة‎/gafs'aAbout this sound[ɡɑfsˤɑ]'Gafsa'⟨ڨ⟩ is also used in Algeria
Hejaziقمر‎/gamar[ɡamar]'moon'Corresponds to [q] in Classical and Modern Standard Arabic.
Najdi[ɡəmar]
Sa'idi[ɡɑmɑr]
Yemeniقال‎/gaal[gæːl]'(he) said'Pronunciation of ⟨ق⟩ in San'ani dialect in the North and Center and Hadhrami in the East
جمل‎/gamal[gæmæl]'camel'Pronunciation of ⟨ج⟩ in Ta'izzi-Adeni dialects in the South and Tihami in the West
Egyptianراجل‎/raagel[ˈɾɑːɡel]'man'Standard pronunciation of ⟨ج⟩ in Egypt and corresponds to /dʒ/, /ʒ/ or /ɟ/ in other pronunciations.
ArmenianEasternգանձ/gançAbout this sound[ɡɑndz] (help·info)'treasure'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaicɡana[ɡaːna]'self'Used predominantly in Iraqi Koine. Corresponds to [dʒ] in Urmia, some Tyari and Jilu dialects.
Azerbaijaniqara[ɡɑɾɑ]'black'
Basquegaldu[ɡaldu]'lose'
Bengaliগান/gan[ɡan]'song'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Bulgarianгора/gora[ɡora]'wood'See Bulgarian phonology
Catalangros[ɡɾɔs]'large'See Catalan phonology
ChineseSouthern Min我/ góa[ɡua]'I'Only in colloquial speech.
Wu狂/ woã[ɡuɑ̃]'crazy'
Xiang共/ wong[ɡoŋ]'together'
Chechenговр/govr[ɡovr]'horse'
Czechgram[ɡram]'gram'See Czech phonology
DutchAll dialectszakdoekAbout this sound[ˈzɑɡduk] (help·info)'tissue'Allophone of /k/, occurring only before voiced consonants in native words. See Dutch phonology
Standard
Many speakersgoalAbout this sound[ɡoːɫ] (help·info)'goal'Only in loanwords. Some speakers may realize it as [ɣ] ~ [ʝ] ~ [χ] ~ [x] (like a normal Dutch ⟨g⟩), or as [k].
Amelandsgoëd[ɡuə̯t]'good'
EnglishgaggleAbout this sound[ˈɡæɡɫ̩]'gaggle'See English phonology
Esperantobongusta[bonˈgusta]'tasty'See Esperanto phonology
Filipinogulo[ɡulɔ]'war'
Frenchgain[ɡɛ̃]'earnings'See French phonology
Georgianული/guli[ˈɡuli]'heart'
Germange[ˈlyːɡə]'lie'See Standard German phonology
Greekγκάρισμα / gkárisma[ˈɡɐɾizmɐ]'donkey's bray'See Modern Greek phonology
Gujaratiગાવું/gāvu[gaːʋʊ̃]'to sing'See Gujarati phonology
Hebrewגב/gav[ɡav]'back'See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustaniगाना / گانا[ɡɑːnɑː]'song'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Hungarianengedély[ɛŋɡɛdeːj]'permission'See Hungarian phonology
Irishgaineamh[ˈɡanʲəw]'sand'See Irish phonology
Italiangare[ˈɡäːre]'competitions'See Italian phonology
Japanese外套 / gaitō[ɡaitoː]'overcoat'See Japanese phonology
KabardianBaslaneyгьанэ/ k'anėAbout this sound[ɡʲaːna] (help·info)'shirt'Dialectal. Corresponds to [dʒ] in other dialects.
Kagayanenkalag[kað̞aɡ]'spirit'
Korean메기 / megi[meɡi]'catfish'See Korean phonology
Lithuaniangarai[ɡɐrɐɪ̯ˑ]'steam'See Lithuanian phonology
Luxembourgishagepack[ˈɑɡəpaːk]More often voiceless [k]. See Luxembourgish phonology
Macedonianгром/grom[ɡrɔm]'thunder'See Macedonian phonology
Malayguni[ɡuni]'sack'
Marathiवत[ɡəʋət]'grass'See Marathi phonology
Nepaliगाउँ[ɡä̃ũ̯]'village'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Nepali phonology
Norwegiangull[ɡʉl]'gold'See Norwegian phonology
Odiaଗଛ/gacha[ɡɔtʃʰɔ]'tree'Contrasts with aspirated form.
Persianگوشت/gušt[guʃt]'meat'
PolishgminAbout this sound[ɡmʲin̪] (help·info)'plebs'See Polish phonology
Portugueselíngua[ˈɫĩɡwɐ]'tongue'See Portuguese phonology
Punjabiਗਾਂ/gaa[ɡɑ̃ː]'cow'
Romaniangând[ɡɨnd]'thought'See Romanian phonology
Russianголова/golovaAbout this sound[ɡəɫɐˈva] (help·info)'head'See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatianгост / gost[gȏ̞ːs̪t̪]'guest'See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovakmiazga[ˈmjäzɡä]'lymph'See Slovak phonology
Somaligaabi[ɡaːbi]'to shorten'See Somali phonology
Spanishgato[ˈɡät̪o̞]'cat'See Spanish phonology
Swahiligiza[ˈɡīzɑ]'darkness'See Swahili phonology
Swedishgod[ɡuːd̪]'tasty'May be an approximant in casual speech. See Swedish phonology
Turkishsalgın[säɫˈɡɯn]'epidemic'See Turkish phonology
Ukrainianґанок/g̀anok[ˈɡɑn̪ok]'porch'See Ukrainian phonology
Welshgwyn[ɡwɪn] or [ɡwɨ̞n]'white'See Welsh phonology
West Frisiangasp[ɡɔsp]'buckle' (n.)See West Frisian phonology
Yi / gge[ɡɤ˧]'hear'
ZapotecTilquiapangan[ɡaŋ]'will be able'Depending on speaker and carefulness of speech, [ɡ] may be lenited to [ɣ]

Other topics

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Voiced velar plosive, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (view authors).


Date of last edit: 2021-01-28T19:38:03.000Z