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Voiceless dental and alveolar plosives

Consonantal sound
Voiceless alveolar plosive
t
IPA Number103
Encoding
Entity (decimal)t
Unicode (hex)U+0074
X-SAMPAt
Braille⠞ (braille pattern dots-2345)
Audio sample
source · help
Voiceless dental plosive
IPA Number103 408
Encoding
Entity (decimal)t​̪
Unicode (hex)U+0074 U+032A
X-SAMPAt_d
Braille⠞ (braille pattern dots-2345)⠠ (braille pattern dots-6)⠹ (braille pattern dots-1456)
Audio sample
source · help

The voiceless alveolar, dental and postalveolar plosives (or stops) are types of consonantal sounds used in almost all spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiceless dental, alveolar, and postalveolar plosives is ⟨t⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is t. The voiceless dental plosive can be distinguished with the underbridge diacritic, ⟨⟩ and the postalveolar with a retraction line, ⟨⟩, and the Extensions to the IPA have a double underline diacritic which can be used to explicitly specify an alveolar pronunciation, ⟨⟩.

The [t] sound is a very common sound cross-linguistically; the most common consonant phonemes of the world's languages are [t], [k] and [p]. Most languages have at least a plain [t], and some distinguish more than one variety. Some languages without a [t] are Hawaiian (except for Niʻihau; Hawaiian uses a voiceless velar plosive [k] for loanwords with [t]), colloquial Samoan (which also lacks an [n]), Abau, and Nǁng of South Africa.

There are only a few languages which distinguishes dental and alveolar stops, Kota, Toda, Venda being a few of them.

Features

Here are features of the voiceless alveolar stop:

Varieties

IPADescription
tplain t
dental t
aspirated t
palatalized t
labialized t
t with no audible release
voiced t
tense t
ejective t

Occurrence

Dental or denti-alveolar

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Aleuttiistax̂[t̪iːstaχ]'dough'Laminal denti-alveolar.
ArmenianEasternտունAbout this sound[t̪un] (help·info)'house'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic[t̪lɑ]'three'
Bashkirдүрт / dürtAbout this sound[dʏʷrt] (help·info)'four'Laminal denti-alveolar
Belarusianстагоддзе[s̪t̪äˈɣod̪d̪͡z̪ʲe]'century'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Belarusian phonology
Basquetoki[t̪oki]'place'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Bengaliতুমি[t̪umi]'you'Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Catalantothom[t̪uˈt̪ɔm]'everyone'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Catalan phonology
ChineseHakka ta3[t̪ʰa˧]'he/she'Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with an unaspirated form.
Chuvashут[ut]'horse'
Dinkath[mɛ̀t̪]'child'Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with alveolar /t/.
DutchBelgiantaal[t̪aːl̪]'language'Laminal denti-alveolar.
EnglishDublinthin[t̪ʰɪn]'thin'Laminal denti-alveolar, corresponds to [θ] in other dialects; in Dublin it may be [t͡θ] instead. See English phonology
Indian
Southern Irish
Ulstertrain[t̪ɹeːn]'train'Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /t/ before /r/, in free variation with an alveolar stop.
EsperantoEsperanto[espeˈran̪t̪o]'Who hopes'See Esperanto phonology
Finnishtutti[ˈt̪ut̪ːi]'pacifier'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Finnish phonology
Frenchtordu[t̪ɔʁd̪y]'crooked'Laminal denti-alveolar. See French phonology
Hindustaniती / تین[t̪iːn]'three'Laminal denti-alveolar. Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Indonesiantabir[t̪abir]'curtain'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Italiantale[ˈt̪ale]'such'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Italian phonology
Japanese特別 / tokubetsu[t̪o̞kɯ̟ᵝbe̞t͡sɨᵝ]'special'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Japanese phonology
KashubianLaminal denti-alveolar.
Kyrgyzтуз[t̪us̪]'salt'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Latviantabula[ˈt̪äbulä]'table'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Latvian phonology
Mapudunguna[ˈfɘt̪ɜ]'husband'Interdental.
Marathiबला[t̪əbˈlaː]'tabla'Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with aspirated form. See Marathi phonology
Nepaliताली[t̪äli]'clappinɡ'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Nepali phonology
Nunggubuyudarag[t̪aɾaɡ]'whiskers'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Odiaତାରା/tara[t̪ärä]'star'Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with aspirated form.
Pazeh[mut̪apɛt̪aˈpɛh]'keep clapping'Dental.
PolishtomAbout this sound[t̪ɔm] (help·info)'volume'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Polish phonology
PortugueseMany dialectsmontanha[mõˈt̪ɐɲɐ]'mountain'Laminal denti-alveolar. Likely to have allophones among native speakers, as it may affricate to [tʃ], [tɕ] and/or [ts] in certain environments. See Portuguese phonology
Punjabiਤੇਲ / تیل[t̪eːl]'oil'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Russianтолстый[ˈt̪ʷo̞ɫ̪s̪t̪ɨ̞j]'fat'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Russian phonology
Scottish Gaelictaigh[t̪ʰɤj]'house'
Serbo-Croatianтуга / tuga[t̪ǔːgä]'sorrow'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovenetip[t̪íːp]'type'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Slovene phonology
Spanishtango[ˈt̪ãŋɡo̞]'tango'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Spanish phonology
Swedishtåg[ˈt̪ʰoːɡ]'train'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Swedish phonology
TemneDental.
Turkishat[ät̪]'horse'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Turkish phonology
Ukrainianбрат[brɑt̪]'brother'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Ukrainian phonology
UzbekLaminal denti-alveolar. Slightly aspirated before vowels.
Vietnamesetuần[t̪wən˨˩]'week'Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with aspirated form. See Vietnamese phonology
ZapotecTilquiapantant[t̪ant̪]'so much'Laminal denti-alveolar.

Alveolar

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AdygheтфыAbout this sound[tfə] (help·info)'five'
ArabicEgyptianتوكةtōka[ˈtoːkæ]'barrette'See Egyptian Arabic phonology
Assyrian Neo-Aramaicܒܬ[beta]'house'Most speakers. In the Tyari, Barwari and Chaldean Neo-Aramaic dialects θ is used.
Bengaliটাকা[t̠aka]'Taka'True alveolar in eastern dialects, apical post-alveolar in western dialects. Usually transcribed in IPA as [ʈ]. See Bengali phonology.
Czechtoto[ˈtoto]'this'See Czech phonology
DanishStandarddåse[ˈtɔ̽ːsə]'can' (n.)Usually transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩ or ⟨d⟩. Contrasts with the affricate [t͡s] or aspirated stop [tʰ] (depending on the dialect), which are usually transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩ or ⟨t⟩. See Danish phonology
Dutchtaal[taːɫ]'language'See Dutch phonology
EnglishMost speakerstickAbout this sound[tʰɪk]'tick'See English phonology
New YorkVaries between apical and laminal, with the latter being predominant.
Finnishparta[ˈpɑrtɑ]'beard'Allophone of the voiceless dental stop. See Finnish phonology
Hebrewתמונה[tmuˈna]'image'see Modern Hebrew phonology
Hungariantutaj[ˈtutɒj]'raft'See Hungarian phonology
KabardianтхуыAbout this sound[txʷə] (help·info)'five'
Korean대숲 / daesup[tɛsup̚]'bamboo forest'See Korean phonology
KurdishNortherntu[tʰʊ]'you'See Kurdish phonology
Centralتەوێڵ[tʰəweːɫ]'forehead'
Southernتێوڵ[tʰeːwɨɫ]
Luxembourgishdënn[tən]'thin'Less often voiced [d]. It is usually transcribed /d/, and it contrasts with voiceless aspirated form, which is usually transcribed /t/. See Luxembourgish phonology
Malaytahun[tähʊn]'year'See Malay phonology
Maltesetassew[tasˈsew]'true'
Mapudungunta[ˈfɘtɜ]'elderly'
Nunggubuyudarawa[taɾawa]'greedy'
Nuosu da[ta˧]'place'Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms
PortugueseSome dialectstroço[ˈtɾɔsu]'thing' (pejorative)Allophone before alveolar /ɾ/. In other dialects /ɾ/ takes a denti-alveolar allophone instead. See Portuguese phonology
Thai ta[taː˧]'eye'Contrasts with an aspirated form.
Vietnameseti[ti]'flaw'See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisiantosk[ˈtosk]'tooth'See West Frisian phonology

Variable

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
ArabicModern Standardتينtīn[tiːn]'fig'Laminal denti-alveolar or alveolar, depending on the speaker's native dialect. See Arabic phonology
EnglishBroad South Africantalk[toːk]'talk'Laminal denti-alveolar for some speakers, alveolar for other speakers.
Scottish[tʰɔk]
Welsh[tʰɒːk]
GermanStandardTochter[ˈtɔxtɐ]'daughter'Varies between laminal denti-alveolar, laminal alveolar and apical alveolar. See Standard German phonology
Greekτρία tria[ˈtɾiä]'three'Varies between dental, laminal denti-alveolar and alveolar, depending on the environment. See Modern Greek phonology
NorwegianUrban Eastdans[t̻ɑns]'dance'Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and laminal alveolar. It is usually transcribed /d/. It may be partially voiced [d̥], and it contrasts with voiceless aspirated form, which is usually transcribed /t/. See Norwegian phonology
Persianتوت[t̪ʰuːt̪ʰ]'berry'Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and apical alveolar. See Persian phonology
Slovakto[t̻ɔ̝]'that'Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and laminal alveolar. See Slovak phonology

Other topics

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Voiceless dental and alveolar plosives, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (view authors).


Date of last edit: 2021-03-15T02:40:02.000Z